Thursday, 28 August 2014

Favourite quotes: LEON (movie)

"Is life always this hard, or is it just when you're a kid?"
"Always like this."


Life is hard, after all, it kills you. The only thing that you can do is to think differently and perceive it as an endowment.

Wednesday, 27 August 2014

GRE argument essay: Skateboarding in the Central Plaza

The following appeared as a letter to the editor from a Central Plaza store owner.
"Over the past two years, the number of shoppers in Central Plaza has been steadily decreasing while the popularity of skateboarding has increased dramatically. Many Central Plaza store owners believe that the decrease in their business is due to the number of skateboard users in the plaza. There has also been a dramatic increase in the amount of litter and vandalism throughout the plaza. Thus, we recommend that the city prohibit skateboarding in Central Plaza. If skateboarding is prohibited here, we predict that business in Central Plaza will return to its previously high levels."
Write a response in which you discuss what questions would need to be answered in order to decide whether the recommendation is likely to have the predicted result. Be sure to explain how the answers to these questions would help to evaluate the recommendation.

While it may seem obvious at first glance that the increase in skateboarding in the Central Plaza is the main reason why the number of shoppers there as well as the whole business decreased, a more thoroughgoing examination should be conducted. General rule of thumb says that there is usually more than only one cause for a situation, not so many things are definite and happen in one to one ratio. There are always more variables involved and more influences. It demonstrates a classical case of improper causation.

Firstly, a situation in the whole district, especially in places that are located near to the Central Plaza, should be taken into account. Chances are that the whole area experience similar problems and it is not only a case for the Central Plaza. Proper inquiries should be made into the matter. Maybe, the municipal government stopped investing funds in the district and as a result the whole area suffers the aforementioned situation. Possibly, the inhabitants of this place became poorer due to inflation and stopped buying in the shops or it might be the case that the Central Plaza became an expensive shopping place with respect to other alternatives.
Secondly, a survey should be carried out amidst the shoppers to reveal the main explanation for their actions. The survey should contain questions about their main goal in changing the location along with a new place of destination. It can occur that the shopkeepers found a better place to run their business, for example, a new shopping mall was built in a posh or more prominent part of the city which offered keenly priced shopping area for rent. The general economic situation of the country could have influenced them and they found a better job or simply discovered a better profession that was paid much better.

Thirdly, the skateboard users should be asked why they altered their previous location. It should be made sure that this is the group that causes the vandalism and is belligerent overall. Do they really litter the Central Plaza? Are there sufficient number of baskets? Is the Police active enough in the area? Did the Police take responsibility for the violence in the Central Plaza? Perhaps, more policemen should visit the Central Plaza frequently. Another way to prevent the vandalism is to set up a camera system (CCTV) or video surveillance. Probably, a good solution would be to provide the skateboard users with other places to do their sport, for instance, the municipality government could build the required facilities in parks or in special zones in the city.

In conclusion, in my opinion this problem can be resolved and the current situation can be explained. The municipal government together with shoppers would take concerted action and at least alleviate or mollify the issue. The skateboard users should be granted with a new place, the police may control the Central Plaza regularly and shoppers shall advertise their place extensively. Finally, the writer could have supported his argument with more substantial evidence and render stronger reasons to clarify why there was correlation between increasing the rate of crimes and the number of skateboarding users.

GRE argument essay vocab

Plan your essay:
  • There is only one way to write an essay: to plan it.  
  • The plan helps to keep you focused.
  • Leave the gist or your main message for the crunch, that is the third body paragraph. 
  • K.I.S.S. - Keep It Simple Stupid
  • Who conducted the research?
  • When was the research conducted?
  • Who participated in the study?
  • What were the age, gender, profession of the participants?
  • What are the relations between the two or more groups?
  • Was it an economic or medical study?
  • What was the type of the study?
  • Where do the participants of the study live?
  • Was the research published?
  • Was the paper peer-reviewed?
  • Is the paper still valid?
Typical paragraph:
  1. Describe the fallacy (błędne przekonanie). 
    1. Appeal to novelty fallacy - a proposal is claimed to be superior or better solely because it is new or modern
    2. Cherry picking fallacy or the sampling assumption (suppressed evidence, incomplete evidence) – act of pointing at individual cases or data that seem to confirm a particular position, while ignoring a significant portion of related cases or data that may contradict that position. The argument assumes the sample is representative.
    3. False analogy fallacy - in which the analogy is poorly suited.
    4. Hasty generalization fallacy - (fallacy of insufficient statistics, fallacy of insufficient sample, fallacy of the lonely fact, leaping to a conclusion, hasty induction) – basing a broad conclusion on a small sample.
  2. Tell and explain why it is a fallacy.
  3. Give examples.
  • However, this argument seems specious on several grounds.

  • The argument does not present enough evidence in support of the claim that ...
  • ... is inversely related to ...
  • ... is positively related to ...
  • Allegedly, ... (przypuszczalnie: Allegedly, the number of skateboarders is positively related to the amount of litter and vandalism in the area.)
  • The argument states that there is a causal relationship between ...
  • A recent study shows that ...
  • It might indeed be the case that ...
  • However, the conclusion cannot be drawn automatically from the presented facts. 
  • The argument overlooks other factors that could contribute to ...
  • Firstly, in order to determine the true cause of the decline in ....  it is necessary to ...
  • It is by no means certain that ...
  • The writer posits that ... but ...
  • As a result, ...
  • As a matter of fact, ...
  • In fact, ...
  • The argument should be supported with further studies.
  • In general, ...; On the whole, ...
  • That being said, ...
  • The author has concluded the argument too hastily without considering all these possibilities. 
  • The second point that the author has raised is that ...
  • Hence, the argument seems very unconvincing.
  • Hence, the argument cannot be concluded without all the information.
  • ..., that is (to say), ... - said when you want to give further details or be more exact about something: I'll meet you in the city, that is (to say), I will if the trains are running 
Common words & synonyms:
  • and: along with, together with, as well as,
  • However, ...; On the other hand, ...; 
  • Moreover, Furthermore, In addition, Besides, 
  • instead of == in lieu of
  • flawed agruments - błędne argumenty
  • fallacy - błędne rozumowanie
  • cogent - przekonujący
  • In conclusion, ...
  • All in all, ...
  • In summary, ... 
  • Hence, ...

Tuesday, 26 August 2014

GRE writing - issue task: Scandals

Scandals are useful because they focus our attention on problems in ways that no speaker or reformer ever could.
Write a response in which you discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the claim. In developing and supporting your position, be sure to address the most compelling reasons and/or examples that could be used to challenge your position.
Scandals occur in many places from schools through companies to governments. The word scandal itself indicates a negative thing and something that should not have happened. In my opinion, by definition, a scandal brings only unnecessary and harmful consequences and it is rather very hard to find any positive or useful aspects of it. This is often the case that we are distracted by scandals and our attention is drawn from vital issues. Thus, in my view scandals are not useful and should be eschewed.

First of all, it is worth considering a few scandals that took place in recent years. The one that stuck to my mind was Bill Clinton's sex scandal (or so called Monica Lewinsky scandal) which ensued many debates in the United States. Indeed, Bill Clinton's private misconduct drew attention of many Americans. Although the nature of this affair was not strictly political, many politicians were engaged in it in lieu of taking care of more important cases that more meaningful influence on the whole nation. As a matter of fact, probably teachers or preachers who harangue about proper behaviour and faithfulness would not have been able to show in a more expressive way what would be consequences of such misconduct. Anyway, this showed to other politicians that they should avoid such issues and conduct their private life prudently. Moreover, citizens no longer want to put their trust in politician who were involved in scandals.

In many scandals, there is shocking information which can arouse our emotions for a short time. Nowadays, even small issues are called scandals by media. We are bombarded with new heinous news and sometimes we come to the level of saturation. Some can say that thanks to these events our lives are more interesting and full of excitement but, to my mind, the proper and effective way of life is a stable development based on moral conduct and righteous deeds.

There were many scandals regarding racism in the United States and many of them ended up with more tensions between people and a lot of regret. On the other hand, most people remember the speech by Martin Luter King: “I have a dream ...”. This was a very powerful and unforgettable message that influenced many human beings and altered the race relations for better.

Conclusively, in my opinions sandals are rather useless and should be prevented. We can introduce new laws and rules which can make sure that nothing improper will be overlooked or evaded. There should be harsh consequences and nobody would be able to eschew them. The main purpose is to achieve transparency. Furthermore, we should listen to our great leaders, speakers and reformers who have crucial messages for us that can boost our lives and make them truly invaluable.

Friday, 22 August 2014

GRE essay: The following is a memorandum from the business manager of a television station.

The following is a memorandum from the business manager of a television station.

"Over the past year, our late-night news program has devoted increased time to national news and less time to weather and local news. During this period, most of the complaints received from viewers were concerned with our station's coverage of weather and local news. In addition, local businesses that used to advertise during our late-night news program have canceled their advertising contracts with us. Therefore, in order to attract more viewers to our news programs and to avoid losing any further advertising revenues, we should expand our coverage of weather and local news on all our news programs."

Write a response in which you examine the stated and/or unstated assumptions of the argument. Be sure to explain how the argument depends on these assumptions and what the implications are for the argument if the assumptions prove unwarranted.

While the argument may seem to be correct at fist glance it is rather too vague to be fully accepted. There are a few fallacies and lack of information which do not allow us to agree with this argument. A more specific evidence as well as more accurate data are needed.

Firstly, the exact time allocation for national news, local news and weather is not given. We do not know whether the time increase for national news was really significant or if it was maybe only a matter of a few seconds. Moreover, a scrutiny should be carried out to find out in which moment during the year an increased number of complaints of time devoted to local news was substantially greater.

Secondly, we do not know the nature of the complaints. It could have been the case the the viewers did not complain about the duration of the local news and weather information, but their concerns pertained mainly to the quality of the news. Maybe previous reporters who prepared the local and weather news have resigned and new reporters are trying to catch up on the former quality. Furthermore, it could have happened that money invested in the local and weather news was not enough to deliver top-notch level of information. It is possible that most of the local population work in the agriculture and they may require extended and precise information about weather conditions.

Thirdly, local businesses could have resigned from the advertisement during the late-night news program due to a difficult situation on the market and chances are they started seeking for other ways of advertisement that would be of a low price. We do not know the cardinal reason for this situation. It could also have been the case that they found a better place for their advertisement. Nowadays, many companies migrate with their adverts from TV programs to the internet. Ad companies, such as Google of Facebook, offer keenly priced services that are customized for clients and able to match companies with potential customers with a high level of accuracy. Besides, the local news could have given information which were against the local businesses and maybe undermined their reputation. Contrary, the local news could have promoted companies from other states or countries which was a contradiction to the advertisements. Probably, the best solution would be to carry out a survey among the local businesses to reveal the main aspect that caused their resignation and at the same time find out what whould attract them to put their advertisements in the late-night news program once again.

Hence, proably the most valuable evidence would be to precisely specify the main reason why the local businesses canceled their advertising contracts in the late-night news program in the television station and determine the nature of the complaints. To take into account its future situation, the television station should consider in a thoroughgoing way how to improve their programs and attract more companies to advertise during the programs, especially the news programs.

Another example of this essay can be found here:

GRE issue task writing: A nation should require all of its students to study the same national curriculum until they enter college.

A nation should require all of its students to study the same national curriculum until they enter college.
Write a response in which you discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the recommendation and explain your reasoning for the position you take. In developing and supporting your position, describe specific circumstances in which adopting the recommendation would or would not be advantageous and explain how these examples shape your position.
There are many educational systems in the world and we can easily find pros and cons for each of them. However, we should search for the best possible educational system which can shape and educate noble people. This is a challenge, but it is worth taking. Generally, according to many different studies on education, we can notice a trend which indicates that the most customized and individual approaches to each and every student generate the best effects. Thus, I do not agree with the statement that a nation should require all of its students to study the same national curriculum until they enter college.

First of all, it is recommended considering advantages and disadvantages of such an approach. The standardized approach can be honed on and after years of iterations such a national curriculum can be excellent and impeccable. On the other hand, each student is different and usually one size does not fit all. Having the same national curriculum for every student is like requiring the same school uniform size for every student. Children live in diverse environments and a student from a rural part of a country probably would be more directed towards different subjects than a student living in a big city. Hence, the program in schools should be adjusted to every student so that it could reveal a student's talents and assist him or her in pursuing a career in a specific field or niche.

Let me consider this problem from an economical point of view. The same national curriculum is a relatively keenly priced solution for the reason that we can summon the best teachers and specialists in a given country, then allot a time of few months for them to prepare initial version of such a curriculum and finally the program could be iteratively improved every year. This solution would be of interest for poor and developing countries that can not afford to spend massive amount of money on education. Conversely, a program that would be adjusted to every student would be very expensive and probably only affluent countries would be able to accept such a solution. In my humble opinion, it would be a great investment and without any doubts this approach would benefit not only students but the whole society as people would be educated in a better way and perhaps would be able to find their passions faster. At the same time, the latter solution requires a plethora of resources. Undoubtedly, some students would have to travel from their home town to other places in a country to match them with proper schools and teachers. It would be more cumbersome to compare students and schools. However, this additional struggle would pay off abundantly.

Personally, I find the national curriculum sufficiently good up to the point of 12 years old. Every person has to master basic skills such as writing and reading. After this period, I was able to find my niche and pick and choose books that were of value for me. It was a pity that my school did not provide individual path of teaching and sometimes I was forced to learn things that were of no value for me, instead of pursuing my passions. The first time when this limitations were really removed was the time when I left my high school and entered university that offered a flexible plan. I could have selected the subjects in which I was really interested. Nonetheless, it was a bit too late.

All in all, there are pros and cons for the same national curriculum for students before they enter college. Nevertheless, my final opinion is that it is much better approach to provide each student with tailor-made curriculum. This could help them find their real passions faster and hone on them. My personal experience, social issues and even economical benefits confirm this solution.

Other essays on this topic can be found here:

Wednesday, 20 August 2014

GRE analytical wirting - analyze an argument: A recent study of eighteen rhesus monkeys provides clues as to the effects of birth order on an individual's levels of stimulation.

The following appeared as part of a letter to the editor of a scientific journal.

"A recent study of eighteen rhesus monkeys provides clues as to the effects of birth order on an individual's levels of stimulation. The study showed that in stimulating situations (such as an encounter with an unfamiliar monkey), firstborn infant monkeys produce up to twice as much of the hormone cortisol, which primes the body for increased activity levels, as do their younger siblings. Firstborn humans also produce relatively high levels of cortisol in stimulating situations (such as the return of a parent after an absence). The study also found that during pregnancy, first-time mother monkeys had higher levels of cortisol than did those who had had several offspring."

Write a response in which you discuss one or more alternative explanations that could rival the proposed explanation and explain how your explanation(s) can plausibly account for the facts presented in the argument.

While the reasoning of this letter may seem correct at first glance, there are some unwarranted assumptions that should be considered and there are lacks of proper correlation between the two main facts. The individual's level of stimulation can be a result of not only a birth order, but also other factors. The author of the letter concentrated only on a birth order and did not take into consideration other possibilities of these effects. Furthermore, what has been concluded for monkeys’ does not demonstrates that humans must possess the same characteristics.

Firstly, the wording of this letter should be taken into account. We cannot find an exact information when the study was carried out and the term 'recent' is rather vague and maybe the research is already obsolete. The author did not inform readers about the selection process of the monkeys. The chances are that this type of effect is common only for this specific group of monkeys and can be a result of an environment in which these very rhesus monkeys were nurtured. The question should be asked how the researchers made sure that the unfamiliar monkey was not met beforehand. Another question worth asking is how the stimulating situations were chosen. The conclusion was based on a sample size of eighteen monkeys. This was not justified why this number of monkeys was sufficient. A sample size is generally a large number and should contain a wide variety of individuals. Moreover, it wan not specified how many of the eighteen monkeys were parents, first born or younger siblings.

Secondly, we can argue that there are other reasons of the increased level of the hormone cortisol. Generally, probably this consequence can appear whenever there is a stimulating situations, especially the one that has to be handled for the first time. It could have happened that during the experiment the oldest sibling was always of a different sex than the unfamiliar monkey. It could have altered the first-born monkey reaction and, for instance, if it had been a male monkey it could have reacted more passionately for the unknown female monkey than its younger sister. We can call this a sex-oriented result.

Thirdly, we do not know all the simulating situations that were checked in case of firt-born humans. The example given with a parent coming back after a long absence can also analysed in terms of sex differences. For example, a reaction of an older daughter can be passionate, whereas a reaction of her younger brother can be even apathetic. The upbringing of children can also be influential for such feedbacks. Perhaps, a mother could have read slushy stories to her first-born, while a father could have read stories about valiant and almost unemotional knights to his younger children. This kind of conditioning could have influenced the following children's reactions to simulating situations.

The last issue to be considered pertains to first-time mothers. The higher level of cortisol could have been caused by conditions in which the monkey was kept or the type of food which was given to her. Maybe, the mother with several offspring were kept in much better or worse conditions. At the same time, an elder mother with several children could have produced more cortisol as a result of her awareness of being too old to be able to deliver health children.

Hence, the birth order may be relevant to some extent in the stimulation level of individuals. However, there may be certain other factors that are more relevant than the birth order such as those discussed above. Further studies and a larger population data maybe more convincing for that matter. The study was concentrated only on one type of causation and there are a few fallacies and inaccuracies in the argument. The author should have provided us with more information about the research process and give more cogent arguments for his or her theory.

Tuesday, 19 August 2014

GRE essay: Educational institutions have a responsibility to dissuade students from pursuing fields of study in which they are unlikely to succeed.

Educational institutions have a responsibility to dissuade students from pursuing fields of study in which they are unlikely to succeed.
Write a response in which you discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the claim. In developing and supporting your position, be sure to address the most compelling reasons and/or examples that could be used to challenge your position.
Each and every person is unique and searches for the most appropriate path in her or his life. Some people have the impression that the educational system confines their abilities and talents whereas its cardinal purpose should be to broaden horizons and give a hand to students who are lost in the maze of choices. The educational institutions are not omniscient. The institutions ought to persuade and encourage students to identify and follow promising fields of study. Without any doubts, the institutions should not dissuade anybody.

Personally, I experienced this inappropriate approach to education a few times. When I was 12 years old, I had my first lessons on physics. To write the truth, my teacher was rather a sad person and even a bit curmudgeon. She discouraged many students from learning physics. Even though the situation was inauspicious, generally I was interested in different experiments and the coursebook was the most pragmatic among all my books in that time. Once our teacher called me for an oral exam. I knew formulas and was able to answer most of her questions but it was not sufficient for her. She simply chastised me for a lack of preparation and graded me unjustly. I was very disappointed. She recommended me to concentrate on other subjects. Next year, I went to a middle school and had another teacher. Contrary to my previous experience, this teacher was totally different. She was a bubbly and optimistic person. She put her trust in us and believed in our potential. As a matter of fact, three years later I reached the final of a physics contest in my voievodship.

Socially, not every person is a genius and aware of his or her talents. There are many role models in our society and some children can select one that is improper for them. For instance, when I was a child I admired Michael Jordan and wanted to emulate him. I used to play basketball every day for many hours. However, I understood that I was too short and would never be selected in an NBA draft. The essential problem was that there was no advisory board in my school that would assist children in the search for a sport in which they could attain a good outcome.

From the perspective of our history, we can find many examples of people who were able to succeed even though many preached doom and gloom about their future. Probably, the best example is Albert Einstein. His teachers perceived him as a loafer and many of them predicted for him rather placid, humdrum and fruitless career path. As we all know, his story was diametrically different. Moreover, undoubtedly Walt Disney was one of the most prolific writer who altered the American animation industry. He was rejected by many editors and struggled with many problems. Nevertheless, his persistence and ingenuity allowed him to break the moulds and achieve a tremendous success. The same story can be narrated about Steve Jobs, Bill Gates, Anthony Robbins and many others.

All in all, I fully disagree with the statement that educational institutions have a responsibility to dissuade students from pursuing fields of study in which they are unlikely to succeed. In my opinion, they should advise, inspire and encourage students to pick and choose suitable fields from a wide range of possibilities.

Thursday, 7 August 2014

Woven baskets (GRE analytical writing - analyse an argument)

Woven baskets characterized by a particular distinctive pattern have previously been found only in the immediate vicinity of the prehistoric village of Palea and therefore were believed to have been made only by the Palean people. Recently, however, archaeologists discovered such a "Palean" basket in Lithos, an ancient village across the Brim River from Palea. The Brim River is very deep and broad, and so the ancient Paleans could have crossed it only by boat, and no Palean boats have been found. Thus it follows that the so-called Palean baskets were not uniquely Palean.

Write a response in which you discuss what specific evidence is needed to evaluate the argument and explain how the evidence would weaken or strengthen the argument.

While it may be true that the so-called Palean baskets were not uniquely Palean, the final conclusion should be evaluated deeper since this author's argument does not make a cogent case. We can find fallacies in the presented reasoning. The text should be analysed in a thoroughgoing way as the argument is rife with holes and assumptions.

First of all, we cannot be 100% sure that there are no specific types of baskets in other regions. Probably, in some regions the excavates were not performed sufficiently enough and we are still in the period before discovering them in other parts of the world. The case of baskets in Lithos can be such an example. On the other hand, there are many possible ways in which the baskets could have been exported from the village of Palea.

One way in which the same baskets could have been woven in Lithos is that a person who lived in Palea would have been able to swim across the river, for example, with a help of a tool that was not a boat. They could have used a wooden board to ameliorate the distance that they could swim. Moreover, they could have used an animal to transport the basket, it could have been a dog. There are also humongous birds that can be tamed such as eagles or falcons which are able to carry heavy items.

Another possibility is that the basket could have been traded to other people. Those people could have gone to far away places where the river was shallow and was able to be crossed effortlessly. The traders could have gone even further and did not have to cross any river since there was somewhere a source of the river.

In my humble opinion it is not only a matter of the basket but also a skill of producing the basket is crucial . Maybe, the basket itself has never reached Lithos, but a person who had a skill of weaving such a basket was able to arrive to Lithos or passed the skill to other people and the same process was continued from generation to generation. Eventually, a person with such a skill entered Lithos.

Probably, it would be worth checking the age of the baskets found in Lithos and Palea. It may occur that the baskets were first created in Lithos. In contrast, the baskets could have been constructed independently in Lithos and Palea. The villages were in close vicinity and the environment there was very similar. It is possible that people who were weaving the baskets imitated the nature and both places could have given the same inspiration to their inhabitants.

To sum up, the presented reasoning can be questioned and it can be proved that there were ways in which the baskets could have been transported from Palea to Lithos. As aforementioned, there are many other ways in which the baskets with the same pattern could have appeared in both places. This author's argument is not cogent and does not prove that the so-called Palean baskets were not uniquely Palean.

Wednesday, 6 August 2014

To understand the most important characteristics of a society, one must study its major cities.

Write a response in which you discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the statement and explain your reasoning for the position you take. In developing and supporting your position, you should consider ways in which the statement might or might not hold true and explain how these considerations shape your position.

I fully support the view that one must study the major cities to understand the most important characteristics of a society. In my view, every city in the world exemplifies at least one characteristic of a society. Benjamin Disraeli, a British politician and author said: “A great city, whose image dwells in the memory of man, is the type of some great idea. Rome represents conquest; Faith hovers over the towers of Jerusalem; and Athens embodies the pre-eminent quality of the antique world, Art.”

Firstly, people has gathered in groups since the times we can reach back in our history. The first prominent civilizations such as ancient Egypt and Babylon erected cities whose remnants can prove their existence. Furthermore, many cities are palimpsests and even though many years passed some signs of their previous forms can still be discerned. The long history of many cities confirms a permanent nature of their societies whereas the changes, for example, in cities' architecture can illustrate a dynamic quality of a society. The way people built the cities, lived in them and the type of work which they used to perform on a daily bases gives us profuse insights in their way of organization, law, hierarchy of a society, types of needs, beliefs and religious practices, philosophy and politics, customs, mores and tradition. Generally, this is what constitutes a culture.

Secondly, all major events in our history, apart from some battles, took place in cities. Undoubtedly, ancient Greece is an exemplar. Before Persian wars, Greece was rather a loosely connected group of poleis. “Polis” literally means a city in Greek or can be translated as a city-state. The poleis were famous in various ways. For instance, Spartans were conceived as bilious people and inhabitants of other poleis strived to avoid them. The city of Athens was a popular meeting venue for philosophers and renowned for their politicians. These examples demonstrates likeness of people from a city.

Thirdly, many contemporary cities depict different characteristics. Many European cities have long history and can tell us a story about their past. Warsaw has a war inscribed in its name. The Warsaw Uprising in 1944 can exhibit the determination of the dwellers of the city. They fought fiercely and mercilessly to be able to feel the freedom for at least a few days. The city was totally destroyed after the Second World War and probably in this aspect one can search for the etymology of English version of its name. Even today, the city of Warsaw exposes a very fast pace of life as it was in a war time. Paris is a symbol of culture. The Eiffel tower established the cultural trend in the development of Paris. People who live there conceive themselves as very creative and all developing artists yearn for an appreciation in Paris. Last but not least argument is the tendency of visiting a country. Indeed, many travellers do not leave city borders.

On the other hand, current humongous cities such as New York and London become similar to each other. The main reason for this situation is globalisation. People travel from one place to another and there are few cities that remained homogeneous. For example, probably Tarnów, a city in southern Poland, reflects the main characteristics of Polish society while it is rather more difficult to discern the characteristics of British society in London.

To sum up, the main characteristics of a society cannot be understood without a thorough analysis of its cities. The cities are indispensable to comprehend many aspects of societies and have been present since the beginning of our history. A city as a place of living for a society is also important for the smooth functioning and continuity of the society. Hence a city itself is a characteristic of society. Famous Greek Philosopher, Aristotle remarked that 'Man is a social animal' and a city is where this need is fulfilled. A city transforms an abstract concept of a society into a tangible evidence.