Wednesday, 27 August 2014

GRE argument essay vocab

Plan your essay:
  • There is only one way to write an essay: to plan it.  
  • The plan helps to keep you focused.
  • Leave the gist or your main message for the crunch, that is the third body paragraph. 
  • K.I.S.S. - Keep It Simple Stupid
  • Who conducted the research?
  • When was the research conducted?
  • Who participated in the study?
  • What were the age, gender, profession of the participants?
  • What are the relations between the two or more groups?
  • Was it an economic or medical study?
  • What was the type of the study?
  • Where do the participants of the study live?
  • Was the research published?
  • Was the paper peer-reviewed?
  • Is the paper still valid?
Typical paragraph:
  1. Describe the fallacy (błędne przekonanie). 
    1. Appeal to novelty fallacy - a proposal is claimed to be superior or better solely because it is new or modern
    2. Cherry picking fallacy or the sampling assumption (suppressed evidence, incomplete evidence) – act of pointing at individual cases or data that seem to confirm a particular position, while ignoring a significant portion of related cases or data that may contradict that position. The argument assumes the sample is representative.
    3. False analogy fallacy - in which the analogy is poorly suited.
    4. Hasty generalization fallacy - (fallacy of insufficient statistics, fallacy of insufficient sample, fallacy of the lonely fact, leaping to a conclusion, hasty induction) – basing a broad conclusion on a small sample.
  2. Tell and explain why it is a fallacy.
  3. Give examples.
  • However, this argument seems specious on several grounds.

  • The argument does not present enough evidence in support of the claim that ...
  • ... is inversely related to ...
  • ... is positively related to ...
  • Allegedly, ... (przypuszczalnie: Allegedly, the number of skateboarders is positively related to the amount of litter and vandalism in the area.)
  • The argument states that there is a causal relationship between ...
  • A recent study shows that ...
  • It might indeed be the case that ...
  • However, the conclusion cannot be drawn automatically from the presented facts. 
  • The argument overlooks other factors that could contribute to ...
  • Firstly, in order to determine the true cause of the decline in ....  it is necessary to ...
  • It is by no means certain that ...
  • The writer posits that ... but ...
  • As a result, ...
  • As a matter of fact, ...
  • In fact, ...
  • The argument should be supported with further studies.
  • In general, ...; On the whole, ...
  • That being said, ...
  • The author has concluded the argument too hastily without considering all these possibilities. 
  • The second point that the author has raised is that ...
  • Hence, the argument seems very unconvincing.
  • Hence, the argument cannot be concluded without all the information.
  • ..., that is (to say), ... - said when you want to give further details or be more exact about something: I'll meet you in the city, that is (to say), I will if the trains are running 
Common words & synonyms:
  • and: along with, together with, as well as,
  • However, ...; On the other hand, ...; 
  • Moreover, Furthermore, In addition, Besides, 
  • instead of == in lieu of
  • flawed agruments - błędne argumenty
  • fallacy - błędne rozumowanie
  • cogent - przekonujący
  • In conclusion, ...
  • All in all, ...
  • In summary, ... 
  • Hence, ...

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